Evaluating Self-Help — Can You Test the Ideas?

woeurieThe best self-help books are grounded in psychological theory and research. Yet both of these have their limits. Even a self-help technique that works like magic for most people in a respected study might fizzle for you.

Your best option is to translate an author’s ideas into new behaviors and monitor the results in your own life. Cognitive behavioral therapists refer to this as behavioral activation, or running a behavioral experiment. There’s a robust literature on these topics. Following are some core themes.

Check your mindset

Josh Kaufman, author of books about rapid skill acquisition and running a business, suggests that you be willing to see your life as a series of experiments. In effect, you adopt the mindset of a scientist who’s studying the effects of a specific behavior change on a sample of one — yourself.

This mental change is subtle and significant. It starts from the assumptions that you can change your behavior and that it’s worthwhile to make the effort. If you have a fixed mindset based on a belief that you ultimately cannot change, then you’ll doom your behavior experiment from the start.

Choose a new behavior

See if you can translate an author’s ideas into physical, visible behaviors. For examples, see BJ Fogg’s Tiny Habits course. Tiny Habits are “baby steps” — daily behaviors that require little time or effort. Examples are flossing just 1 tooth after brushing your teeth and doing just 1 push up after you use the bathroom.

BJ’s theory is that small behaviors expand over time into bigger habits, such as flossing all your teeth and doing dozens of push ups every day. This is exactly what I’ve found, and I encourage you to test Tiny Habits for yourself.

Ironically, lots of material in the self-help space is filled with vaguely inspirational abstractions that have no real implications for your daily behavior. (As much as I enjoyed the Landmark Forum, for example, it’s filled with that stuff.)

Collect data as you do the new behavior

Keep track of how often you do your new behaviors and the results you’re getting. You have many options here. Keep it simple.

For example, you could use an activity tracker such as a Fitbit to monitor how many steps you take every day.

Comedian Jerry Seinfeld used a wall calendar to track how many days in a row he wrote new jokes.

There are also plenty of pre-formatted worksheets for collecting data on your behaviors and their consequences. Start here.

Confirm or disconfirm the author’s predictions.

In essence, a self-help book is a set of predictions: If you use these suggestions, then your life will change for the better in specific ways. When you make concrete behavior changes and measure the effects, you can speak with authority about whether those predictions came true for you.

For more on testing ideas, see:

Evaluating Self-Help — Is It Based On Theory?

graph-backgroundTheory is one of the least understood words in the English language. We often hear the term used derisively — as in that idea sounds good in theory, but will it work in practice?

Actually, a theory states precise relationships between things we observe. A genuine theory allows you to accurately predict the consequences of your behavior. If a theory doesn’t work in practice, then it’s not a good theory.

In How Will You Measure Your Life? by Clayton M. Christensen, James Allworth, and Karen Dillon explain the practical benefits of theory:

Indeed, while experiences and information can be good teachers, there are many times in life where we simply cannot afford to learn on the job. You don’t want to have to go through multiple marriages to learn how to be a good spouse. Or wait until your last child has grown to master parenthood. This is why theory can be so valuable: it can explain what will happen, even before you experience it.

A related benefit is that theory gives you a way to create your own strategies for behavior change. Take psychologist BJ Fogg’s model, for example. It states that for a behavior to occur, three elements must converge in the same moment:

  • Motivation, including the desire for pleasure over pain, hope over fear, and social acceptance over social rejection
  • Ability, meaning that simple behaviors are more likely to occur when motivation is low (which is often)
  • Trigger — a cue or call to action, such as a ringing alarm clock

I used this model to develop a daily yoga practice after decades of trying and failing. After turning on my coffee maker in the morning (a reliable daily trigger), my intention is to simply step on my yoga mat — a behavior that requires no special ability.

BJ Fogg’s model predicts that such tiny habits evolve naturally into more complex and sustained behaviors. This is exactly what happened for me: Over time, stepping on the mat led to doing several rounds of sun salutes — even on days when my motivation to do yoga is zilch.

All this is why I’m excited by BJ’s model and books such as Get Out of Your Mind and Into Your Life and Mind and Emotions. Because they are grounded in research-based theory (Relational Frame Theory, to be exact), these books exemplify the gold standard for self-help.

At a lower level are inspirational books based on anecdotes, such as Stephen Covey’s The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People and the whole Chicken Soup for the Soul series. I don’t find theories in such books. They’re not research-based, and their predictive power is questionable.

Which is why I often ask: That’s fine in practice, but does it work in theory?

The Case Against Goals — and an Alternative

Goal setting is touted in many self-help books as a sure path to success and happiness. Ironically, such widespread agreement makes me want to question the whole strategy even more.

Turns out that there are plenty of people willing to join me.

Goals can fail to satisfy 

Start with Harvard psychologist Daniel Gilbert and his well-researched, entertaining book Stumbling On Happiness.

We often set goals based on what we think will make us happy in the future. The problem, says Dan, is that we are lousy at predicting how we will feel in a decade, a year, or even a month from today. This means that we can achieve our goals without getting the emotional payoff that we originally wanted.

Several psychologists are researching this phenomenon, which is called affective forecasting. Dan’s site lists some relevant studies.

Goals depend on sustained effort

Jeff Goins argues that “goals are a waste of time” because they seduce us into relying on planning.

How well do you act on your plans to achieve your goals? If you struggle with procrastination and follow-through, then the odds are against you.

Many achievements are unplanned

In addition, many wonderful things happen to us — such as making friends, falling in love, or finding a dream job — without planning. Focusing exclusively on our goals can blind us to surprise opportunities.

Goals highlight the gap between what we have and what we want

Shane Parrish notes that setting our sights on a long-term goal highlights the discrepancy between our current state and our ideal state:

Goal-oriented people mostly fail. If your goal is to lose 20 pounds, you will constantly think that you are not at your goal until you reach it. If you fall short you’re still a failure. The only way to reach your goal is to lose the 20 pounds. It’s a state of near perpetual failure.

Replacing goals with daily practices

Fortunately there is a way to overcome these obstacles: Let go of your goals and focus instead on small, daily behavior changes.

I’m actually skeptical about long-term goals that don’t lead to daily behavior change.

This idea is developed in a quirky and delightful book by cartoonist Scott Adams — How to Fail at Almost Everything and Still Win Big: Kind of the Story of My Life. According to Scott, “goals are for losers” and “systems are for winners”:

If you do something every day, it’s a system. If you’re waiting to achieve it someday in the future, it’s a goal.

The system-versus-goals model can be applied to most human endeavors. In the world of dieting, losing twenty pounds is a goal, but eating right is a system. In the exercise realm, running a marathon in under four hours is a goal, but exercising daily is a system. In business, making a million dollars is a goal, but being a serial entrepreneur is a system.

The systems people are feeling good every time they apply their system.

Why delay gratification? 

That last paragraph is crucial. Every time that you do your small daily behavior, you experience immediate success. And if that behavior is something you enjoy, then you can savor the process of behavior change as much as the results.

My friend Judy put it this way: “Each day is whole and good all by itself. I can still accomplish things and NOT locate myself on an arduous path of incompleteness and frankly, pain.”


Where to learn more

If you want to further explore the pitfalls of goal setting and play with some alternatives, check out the following:

Also listen to this podcast, in which James Altucher urges us to forget about goals and base our daily activities on themes instead.

I wish you daily success and fulfillment.

Translating James Altucher’s Daily Practice into Tiny Habits

In The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, Stephen R. Covey raises an inspiring question: What one new thing could you do on a regular basis to make a tremendous positive difference in your life?

For answers, we can turn to James Altucher’s concept of a daily practice. James urges us to do something every day that promotes health in four dimensions — physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual.

This suggestion becomes even more powerful when we translate James’s general suggestions into Tiny Habits as suggested by psychologist BJ Fogg.

The Nature of Tiny Habits

Tiny Habits are behaviors that:

  • You do at least once a day
  • Take less than 30 seconds
  • Require little effort

For example:

  • After I brush my teeth, I will floss one tooth.
  • After I pour my morning coffee, I will text my spouse a loving message.
  • After I start the dishwasher, I will read one sentence from a book.

Tiny Habits work because they’re “baby steps” — easy to do. This eliminates any need for “motivation” or “willpower.”

Tiny Habits also tend to expand naturally. If you start flossing one tooth on a regular basis, for example, then you’re likely to start flossing more of them.

Designing Tiny Habits

BJ Fogg urges us to put Tiny Habits in writing and state them in a precise way: a trigger (After I pour my morning coffee) followed by the specific behavior (I will text my spouse a loving message).

Following are examples of Tiny Habits from BJ Fogg. (For more ideas, see Designing Behavior Change — An Introduction to the Work of BJ Fogg.) I’ve grouped these examples into the four categories of daily practice. Remember that triggers vary from person to person: Choose a daily event or stable habit that you already have.

Tiny Habits for Physical Health

  • After I start the shower, I will do two push ups.
  • After I start the coffee maker, I will step on the yoga mat.
  • After I get home from work, I will put on my walking shoes.
  • After I shower, I will fill a glass of water.
  • After I get dressed, I will throw out one bad food item in my house.

Tiny Habits for Emotional Health

  • After I turn out the lights, I will kiss my wife.
  • After I get dressed in the morning, I will go downstairs and give my husband a hug.
  • After I arrive home, I will kiss my wife and baby.
  • After I get out of the shower, I will kiss my husband.
  • After I get out of bed, I will hug my partner.

Tiny Habits for Intellectual Health

  • After I clean up breakfast dishes, I will list one idea for a blog post.
  • After I plug in my cell phone to charge, I will write one sentence.
  • After I plug in my laptop to charge, I will write three words in my journal.
  • After I turn off the TV, I will recite one line of poetry.
  • After I get on the bus, I will I open my workbook.

Tiny Habits for Spiritual Health       

  • After I turn on my computer, I will take two deep breaths.
  • After I step out on the deck at night, I will look up at the stars.
  • After I floss, I will smile.
  • After I sit down at my desk, I will address a thank you note to one person.
  • After my feet touch the floor in the morning, I will say “It’s going to be a good day.”  

James Altucher on the Power of a Daily Practice  

330px-JamesAltucherMy favorite blogger is James Altucher — investor, entrepreneur, and author of 11 books. He crosses the business, spirituality, and self-help genres with writing that’s raw, funny, and insightful.

The hub of James’s work is the notion of a daily practice. This is a cluster of habits designed to keep your “four bodies” — physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual — in prime health.

I’ve culled the essence of James’s daily practice from several of his blog posts and books. Following are my notes, including selected quotes from James.

Physical Health

  • Eat well — “Do not eat after 6PM. Totally hard, but you’ll sleep better. And you’ll lose weight naturally.”
  • Sleep well — “Go to sleep by 9PM. Wake up by 5AM. The early bird gets the worm. Besides, it’s peaceful when it’s early.”
  • Exercise — “This doesn’t mean go to the power gym with a trainer. It might just mean take a walk three times a week. Whatever works for you…. Also, spending this time helps your mind better deal with its daily anxieties.”

Emotional Health

  • Move toward people who love and support you — “If someone lifts me up, I bring them closer.”
  • Move away from people who drain you — “When you get in the mud with a pig, the pig gets happy and you get dirty. Cut out people that drag on you…. And I never owe anyone an explanation. Explaining is draining.”
  • Be honest — “Try being honest for a day (without being hurtful). It’s amazing where the boundaries are of how honest one can be. It’s much bigger than I thought.”
  • Be quiet — “Instead of speaking the average 2500 words a day that most people speak, it would be nice for me to speak 1000 words a day when possible.”

Intellectual Health

  • Read — “Every day, read/skim chapters from books on at least four different topics.”
  • Write down ten ideas every day — “It doesn’t matter if they are business ideas, book ideas, ideas for surprising your spouse in bed, ideas for what you should do if you are arrested for shoplifting, ideas for how to make a better tennis racquet, anything you want.”

Spiritual Health

  • Pray — “… doesn’t matter if I’m praying to a god or to dead people or to the sun or to a chair in front of me – it just means being thankful. And not taking all the credit, for just a few seconds of the day.”
  • Meditate — “Sit in a chair, with your back straight. Watch your breathing…. You can also meditate for 15 seconds by really visualizing what it would be like meditate for 60 minutes.”
  • Express gratitude — “I try to think of everyone in my life I’m grateful for. Then I try to think of more people. Then more.”
  • Forgive — “I picture everyone who has done me wrong. I visualize gratefulness for them (but not pity).”
  • Read sacred texts — “Read a bible, book on Buddha or a positive philosopher. Think positive thoughts, and appreciate your existence.”
  • Detach from negative emotions — “Whenever you notice you are complaining or anxious or nervous or scared, try to stop yourself and do two things: Repeat to yourself, I notice I’m feeling anxious. This distances you from the feeling of I’m anxious!
  • Surrender — “You’ve done all you can do. All that is within your power, your control. Now, give up the results.”
  • Stay in the present moment — “All fears from the past, all worries of the future. All of that doesn’t exist. It’s my mind pretending they exist. I give up. I can’t control the past or the future. They are empty, just like I am.”

Image from CrunchRaisin, Flickr Creative Commons

Change That Lasts — Helping Readers Adopt New Habits

fitnessjogIn an earlier post, I outlined the problems we face as writers who create books and other materials to promote behavior change. This post is about a solution.

Three Paths to Behavior Change

The most exciting discovery I’ve made in the last five years is the work of B.J. Fogg — psychologist, researcher, and founder of the Persuasive Tech Lab at Stanford University. He pioneered the Tiny Habits program, which is based on the idea that three things lead to long-term change in human behavior:

  1. Experiencing an epiphany, or life-altering insight that resonates on a deep emotional level
  2. Changing your environment
  3. Taking” baby steps”—making small changes in behavior (almost absurdly small, in fact) that cascade over time into larger, enduring change

As authors, too many of us rely on #1. That’s unrealistic, says Fogg. Not only are epiphanies rare — they’re almost impossible to predict, create, or control. Our books might be good, but they’re not that good.

Though Fogg has a lot to say about #2 above, I’ll focus on #3. It has wide applications and is fun to boot.

The Nature of a Tiny Habit

Tiny Habits meet three criteria. They are behaviors that:

  • You do at least once a day
  • Take less than 30 seconds
  • Require little effort

These criteria are based on two unflattering observations about human beings. First, we resist change. Two, we’re lazy. We like to avoid discomfort and effort — especially when they relate to large-scale changes in our behavior.

BJ’s solution is to plan behavior changes that require almost no time, no effort, no ability, no motivation, and no friction. For example:

  • After I brush my teeth, I will floss one tooth.
  • After I pour my morning coffee, I will text my spouse.
  • After I start the dishwasher, I will read one sentence from a book.
  • After I pee, I will do one push up.

The joy of this process is that Tiny Habits naturally expand into bigger changes. When you successfully floss one tooth, for example, you’re more likely to floss other teeth. Over time, your new behavior can make your dentist very happy.

Easy? Not!

When designing Tiny Habits, people often start with behaviors that are vaguely defined and too ambitious. It takes serious editing to specify habits that are truly tiny.

Notice also the structure of the three examples listed above. Tiny Habits work when they’re triggered by a habit that’s already part of your daily routine (“After I….”) Pairing the new behavior with an old one takes practice.

Rewards are also key to forming Tiny Habits. These can be as simple as saying YES to yourself after doing your new behavior. Getting this part of the program to work takes practice as well.

Fortunately, Fogg offers a free e-mail course that will guide you through the intricacies of Tiny Habits. It’s all based on three words: Simplicity changes behavior.

Deconstructing Our Ideas Into Tiny Habits

Let’s take the big ideas that we champion and translate them into Tiny Habits.

When we recommend a goal, outcome, policy, procedure, or “best practice,” let’s help our audiences deconstruct it into a series of small behavior changes.

Let’s give examples of those changes. And let’s suggest ways to experiment with triggers, behaviors, and rewards until people emerge with change that lasts.

If we can’t do this, then it’s time to take another look at our our content. And if we can help our audiences design for behavior change, then we have a potent sign that our stuff actually works.

Let’s Face It—Readers Resist Behavior Change

stemarie_nativeyouthAlmost all of the books I’ve worked on shared a singular purpose—to help people change their behavior. Though I was usually excited about these projects, I seldom escaped the nagging fear that the published product would have zero impact on readers’ lives.

Behavior change is the core rationale for business, self-help, popular psychology, and “how-to” books of every stripe. These are often written by idea entrepreneurs with a mission to change the world (or at least a corner of it), to create a legacy, and to make a pile of money in the process.

Alas, those hopes are easily dashed on the shores of sheer inertia. We’re pitted against readers who seldom have a clue about bridging the gap between theory and practice, between intention and action.

At War With Ourselves

People stubbornly resist behavior change. Even after exposure to grand and sweeping ideas, we find ourselves sinking back into the same old safe and familiar patterns. This is often true no matter how mediocre or painful the results. Books come and go, but problems persist.

To understand this, remember that the part of us which processes ideas and information from a book is the conscious mind. And this is a pitiful player against the mighty unconscious mind — including the force of habit — that actually runs our lives.

We like to think that we are free agents, making conscious choices that take us in sure, incremental steps toward greater happiness. In reality, we act like automatons. Most of the time, we simply repeat stimulus-response chains that were forged decades ago. We’re robots just running our programming, and the whole drama plays out below the threshold of conscious awareness.

Helping Readers Design for Behavior Change

This problem will persist until we explicitly address it. And that requires some ego-deflation. Let’s begin by admitting that our precious, sparkling ideas — even those that seem so obviously powerful and right to us — are seldom enough to make most readers lift a little finger.

We’re called upon to add a crucial missing ingredient to our content, which is an explicit design for behavior change. I use that word design on purpose. For one thing, it’s a term that’s emerged in connection with some exciting recent research on behavior change. In addition, it reminds us that behavior change calls for planning as well as implementation and feedback. Most of us will experiment, falter, fail, adjust, and tweak our efforts until we experience a change that lasts.

In my next post, I’ll suggest a way to help your audience to do just that.

Make Time to Write With Tiny Habits

The most common reasons that my clients give for failing to write are 1) lack of time and 2) procrastination. The Tiny Habits method solves both problems.

This method is the brainchild of B. J. Fogg, a psychologist at Stanford University. B. J. offers a free online course about habit change that I highly recommend. I’ll introduce his ideas here and suggest ways for writers to use them.

B. J. Fogg
B. J. Fogg


There’s an old saying: If you want to learn something new, then take it in “baby steps.” This is the crux of B. J.’s method. There are three key elements:

1. Trigger. This is a stimulus that cues a behavior. For example, you set an alarm (trigger) to cue a specific behavior—getting out of bed in the morning. The best triggers are things that happen every day for you.

2. Behavior. This is the new habit that you want to adopt. For B. J., the key is to make this behavior “stupid small”—something that’s easy to do and takes 30 seconds or less.

Let’s say that you want to develop a daily habit of flossing your teeth. For many people, the trigger for this behavior is the act of brushing their teeth.

If we set an intention to floss all our teeth after brushing, however, that’s not likely to happen. The behavior is too big. Instead, says B. J., make it your intention to floss only one tooth.

Sound silly? It did to me at first. But here’s the thing: Success with a tiny behavior change naturally expands. If you consistently floss one tooth every time that you brush, then you’ll find yourself flossing more teeth over time.

3. Celebration. Every time you successfully perform your tiny habit, congratulate yourself. Your reward doesn’t have to be dramatic. It just needs to be consistent and authentic. One option is to say something to yourself such as:

  • I am awesome.
  • I did it.
  • This is working.
  • Victory!
  • Success!

You might ask about the role of motivation and willpower in this method. The answer is: Little, if any. What matters most is good behavior design: trigger, tiny habit, and celebration.


To choose your tiny habit, describe it with a specific syntax:

After I… I will….

“After I” describes your trigger. “I will” describes your tiny habit. (What’s unstated—and still important—is remembering to celebrate.)

In the introduction to his Tiny Habits course, B. J. gives these examples:

  • After I pour my morning coffee, I will text my mom.
  • After I start the dishwasher, I will read one sentence from a book.
  • After I walk in my door from work, I will get out my workout clothes.
  • After I hear any phone ring, I will exhale and relax for two seconds.
  • After I put my head on the pillow, I will think of one good thing from my day.


Consider the following possibilities for developing a daily writing habit, no matter how busy or lazy you claim to be:

  • After I get to my desk in the morning, I will write one sentence.
  • After I pour my morning coffee, I will dictate one sentence.
  • After I start the dishwasher, I will open Microsoft Word.
  • After I sit down on the train, I will open my notebook.
  • After I close a book, I will write one comment on what I’ve just read.

Experiment and find out what works for you.

Changing Your Behavior in Baby Steps

B. J. Fogg is founder and director of the Persuasive Tech Lab at Stanford University. He researches ways to help people change habits with support from online services and mobile devices.

Fogg’s 3 Tiny Habits program is based on a single strategy: Spend a week adopting 3 new habits. And make sure that each habit is a “baby step”—a single, concrete behavior that you can do within 30 seconds. Examples are:

  • Floss one tooth
  • Practice one short chord sequence on your guitar
  • After your morning coffee, go for a 30-second walk

The idea is that baby steps can cascade into larger changes in behavior. After flossing one tooth, for example, you might find it easier to floss all your teeth.

Shortly after New Year’s Day 2012, Fogg spoke to a reporter from KQED about this. I found it fascinating. Some highlights from his speaking during the interview:

What a mistake—the whole idea around New Year’s resolutions. People aren’t picking specific behaviors, they’re picking abstractions.

The strength of a habit is defined, at least the way I see it, is how much of a decision was that behavior. So if you’re deciding ‘yeah, I’m going to go to the gym today’ it’s a pretty good indication it’s not a habit. Habits are things you do without deciding.

You declare victory. Like I am so awesome, I just flossed one tooth. And I know it sounds ridiculous. But I believe that when you reinforce yourself like that, your brain will say yeah, awesome, let’s do that.

If you really took the techniques for training dogs and applied it to yourself, you would have much better success. Now, I’m sure people are upset with me for saying that because people want to think we’re different from other animals. When it comes to behavior, we’re a lot more alike than people want to believe.

For more info and to sign up for the 3 Tiny Habits program, go here.

Charles Duhigg on How to Change a Habit

Charles Duhigg, an investigative reporter for the New York Times, has written a real book about habit change. As Timothy D. Wilson noted in his review of The Power of Habit:

Duhigg has read hundreds of scientific papers and interviewed many of the scientists who wrote them, and relays interesting findings on habit formation and change from the fields of social psychology, clinical psychology and neuroscience. This is not a self-help book conveying one author’s homespun remedies, but a serious look at the science of habit formation and change.

So, how do you change a habit, anyway?

Ah, if only there were a simple formula. But there isn’t.

To be more precise, formulas do exist. The problem is that there are thousands of them.

The reason, Duhigg notes, is that “the specifics of diagnosing and changing the patterns in our lives differ from person to person and behavior to behavior. Giving up cigarettes is different than curbing overeating, which is different from changing how you communicate with your spouse, which is different from how you prioritize tasks at work.”

That said, Duhigg offers something even more useful than a formula. This is a framework for understanding how habits form—and how to run self-experiments in changing them.

That framework has four main steps. I’ll flesh it out with an example from Duhigg’s own experiments.

1. Identify the routine

The routine is the behavior that you unconsciously repeat—for example:

• Drinking a second or third glass of wine with dinner

• Grabbing the TV remote as soon as you get home from work

• Eating a cookie every afternoon at work

The latter was Duhigg’s  downfall. At about 3:30, he routinely took the elevator up to the Times employee cafeteria and consumed a cookie while chatting with colleagues.

When his wife made some pointed remarks about the eight pounds he’d gained, Duhigg decided it was time for a change.

2. Experiment with rewards

Habits get cemented in place because they deliver a reward. More specifically, they satisfy a craving.

The trick is to pinpoint the exact reward that’s involved. This isn’t always obvious, so prepare to run some self-tests.

Eating a cookie in the afternoon offers several possible rewards, such as:

A) Satisfying hunger

B) Getting a sugar-induced burst of energy

C) Taking a break from work to socialize with friends

If the reward is A, then eating an apple could suffice.

If B is the true craving, then a cup of straight coffee—with no fat and a fraction of a cookie’s calories—could satisfy the craving.

And if C is actually what’s driving the routine, then you could skip the cafeteria and cookie altogether. Just walk over to a colleague’s desk for a quick chat.

Step 2, then, involves changing the routine and keeping written notes about how you feel afterward.

3. Isolate the cue

Researchers discovered that routines are usually triggered by a cue—a specific event in your external or internal environment.

To isolate the cue, observe yourself over several days. Answer these questions about what happens right before you perform the routine:

• Where are you?

• What time is it?

• What’s your emotional state?

• Who else is around?

• What action preceded the urge?

4. Have a plan

Once you’ve pieced together your particular habit loop—routine, reward, and cue—you can actually change the habit. Plan for the cue and choose a different routine that delivers the reward you crave.

Duhigg discovered that his cue for eating a cookie was a specific time—roughly 3:30 p.m.

“I knew that my routine was to go to the cafeteria, buy a cookie and chat with friends,” he notes. “And, through experimentation, I had learned that it wasn’t really the cookie I craved—rather, it was a moment of distraction and the opportunity to socialize.”

Armed with this data, Duhigg devised a simple plan and put it in writing: “At 3:30, every day, I will walk to a friend’s desk and talk for 10 minutes.”

This was not an immediate fix. There were days when Duhigg relapsed into the familiar cookie habit.

Over a few weeks of repeated practice, however, the plan worked. Today Duhigg’s afternoon snack routine is only memory.

For more details, see this video for Duhigg’s first-hand account of his experiment with habit change.